Affective job satisfaction is a subjective construct representing an emotional feeling individuals have about their job. Cognitive job satisfaction is a more objective and logical evaluation of various facets of a job. Cognitive job satisfaction can be unidimensional if it comprises evaluation of just one facet of a job, such as pay or maternity leave, or multidimensional if two or more facets of a job are simultaneously evaluated. Cognitive job satisfaction does not assess the degree of pleasure or happiness that arises from specific job facets, but rather gauges the extent to which those job facets are judged by the job holder to be satisfactory in comparison with objectives they themselves set or with other jobs. While cognitive job satisfaction might help to bring about affective job satisfaction, the two constructs are distinct, not necessarily directly related, and have different antecedents and consequences.

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The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of U. Customs and Border Protection or the U. In this installment of the History Corner, we focus on an early pioneer of job satisfaction research and vocational guidance, Robert Hoppock see Figure 1.

After graduating from Lambertville High School, he spent 2 years at Lafayette College before transferring to Wesleyan University, where he earned an undergraduate degree in economics in Ohles et al. Photograph of n. After graduating from college, Hoppock was unsure of which career Robert Hoppock, courtesy of his path he should pursue.

This was a recurring daughter Margatheme in his life. In his own words, Hoppock ret Joan Bedell. Having dabbled in a number of different Robert Hoppock jobsaccounting clerk, payroll clerk, express can be viewed in Hoppock et al. After 3 years as a teacher, he changed careers to become the first vocational counselor in the Rahway, New Jersey school district, eventually transitioning again to become the National Vocational Guidance Associations first field secretary Hoppock et al.

Later he became an assistant director at the National Occupational Conference within the Carnegie Corporation, where he studied employment trends1 Ohles et al. He later entered graduate school at Columbia University, earning a masters degree in educational psychology and a PhD in educational research in and , respectively; Ohles et al.

He served as a professor at NYU from to Ohles et al. In addition to teaching, Hoppock assumed a number of leadership and organizing roles. He was also elected a fellow of the American Psychological Association. That book, which was published in an era when job satisfaction had yet to be the subject of much scientific research, describes three studies that Hoppock conducted as part of his dissertation research for historical background on these studies, see Hoppock, Contributions to the Study of Job Satisfaction In a follow-up study conducted during the school year, Hoppock collected job satisfaction questionnaire data from teachers employed in 51 communities throughout the Northeastern United States.

He identified the most satisfied and the least satisfied teachers within his sample and compared the two groups on several potential predictors.

His results suggested that the most satisfied teachers, in comparison to the least satisfied teachers, were older, displayed higher levels of general emotional adjustment, and reported having higher social status, lower work Throughout his career, Hoppock gave considerable attention to worker adjustment.

He suggested that adjustment was multidimensionalit was reflected in a workers health, earnings, percentage of time unemployed, satisfaction in human relations, [and] job satisfaction Hoppock, , p. Hoppock was particularly interested in job satisfaction and his early work in this area culminated with the publication of the book Job Satisfaction Hop The first of these studies, which began in the summer of , used semistructured interviews to examine job satisfaction among 40 employed and 40 unemployed adults the unemployed participants were asked to reflect on their most recent job.

Among other things, these participants were asked to note the things they liked and the things they disliked about their work. In addition, participants completed self-report measures of overall job satisfaction and satisfaction with specific aspects of their job, such as supervision, coworkers, and pay. The results of that study identified several potential causes of job satisfaction, including amount of social status conferred by ones work, job autonomy, and interpersonal relationships with ones supervisors and coworkers.

October , Volume 53, Number 2 monotony, and better interpersonal relationships with supervisors and coworkers. In a third studywhich was conducted without the prior approval of his dissertation committee see Hoppock, questionnaire data from residents of New Hope, Pennsylvania. He noted that such a sample would include participants from a variety of occupations and employers, thus increasing the generalizability of his findings.

So during the summer of , Wallace P. Thorntona retired insurance agent and Hoppocks father-inlawcanvassed New Hope in search of research participants. Hoppocks objective was to recruit every employed New Hope resident age 18 and over; he excluded people who were not paid for their work e. Professional men, artists, and railroad workers, for example, were more satisfied than were teachers, laborers, and farmers.

As a testament to its impact, Job Satisfaction was reviewed in the New York Times and is listed among the great books of I-O psychology Highhouse, The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist After the publication of his book, Hoppock continued to pursue his interest in job satisfaction by conducting research, writing literature reviews, and speaking on the topic see Figure 2. Robinson and Hoppock summarized several studies conducted by other researchers, including studies that examined job satisfactions relationships with turnover and productivity, as well as studies that examined environmental factors and personal characteristics as predictors of job satisfaction.

Other articles published by Hoppock examined the relationship between age and job satisfactionhe reported a correlation of. Regarding the latter, he found that psychologists scored in the 64th percentile on job satisfaction, which led him to conclude that the vocational and industrial Figure 2.

Robert Hoppocks handwritten notes for a speech on job satisfaction that he gave to the Psychology Club in New York in He frequently provided practical advice on career guidance to both counselors and job seekers, including an early textbook for guidance counselors Group Guidance; Hoppock, that was packed with practical illustrations and materials Shaffer, , p.

Hoppocks textbook for vocational counseling, Occupational Information, received the highest commendation in a review Baer, , p. This book provided guidance on obtaining occupational information, counseling individuals on their occupational choices, and teaching occupations to students. He also published checklists of questions to assist job seekers, students, and counselors Hoppock, To this day, Joyce Laine Kennedy, a newspaper reporter, frequently mentions his seven principles paraphrased in Table 1 for selecting a career Kennedy, , , , a, b, Hoppock often mentioned that when choosing a career it is critical to consider the employment outlook and labor market for different jobs rather than focusing solely on ones interests Barnard, ; Hoppock, a; Hoppock, b.

Some of his ideas seem ahead of the timesin he argued that marriage no longer means permanent removal from the employment market and that there is no sound psychological reason why women should cook meals, wash dishes, launder clothes and clean houses Associated Press, , p. He was referenced in 38 New York Times articles, edited a magazine Occupational Index covering occupational opportunities, and wrote a newspaper article Hoppock, b.

Hoppock was known as an excellent speaker for outreach events such as parentteacher association meetings Scarsdale Inquirer, , p.


Robert Hoppock

History[ change change source ] Assessments of job satisfaction became commonplace in the s. Uhrbrock was one of the first psychologists to use new techniques to assess factory worker attitudes. Hoppock published a study of teachers on how satisfied they were with their jobs. This study found that job satisfaction is affected by the work, the coworkers, and the managers.


Job satisfaction, by Robert Hoppock ...



Job satisfaction


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