ADENOZIN TRIFOSFAT PDF

Two of the three phosphates PO4 … Cells require chemical energy for three general types of tasks: to drive metabolic reactions that would not occur automatically; to transport needed substances across membranes; and to do mechanical work, such as moving muscles. ATP is not a storage molecule for chemical energy; that is the job of carbohydrates , such as glycogen , and fats. When energy is needed by the cell , it is converted from storage molecules into ATP. ATP then serves as a shuttle, delivering energy to places within the cell where energy-consuming activities are taking place. ATP is a nucleotide that consists of three main structures: the nitrogenous base, adenine ; the sugar , ribose ; and a chain of three phosphate groups bound to ribose.

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Two of the three phosphates PO4 … Cells require chemical energy for three general types of tasks: to drive metabolic reactions that would not occur automatically; to transport needed substances across membranes; and to do mechanical work, such as moving muscles.

ATP is not a storage molecule for chemical energy; that is the job of carbohydrates , such as glycogen , and fats. When energy is needed by the cell , it is converted from storage molecules into ATP. ATP then serves as a shuttle, delivering energy to places within the cell where energy-consuming activities are taking place. ATP is a nucleotide that consists of three main structures: the nitrogenous base, adenine ; the sugar , ribose ; and a chain of three phosphate groups bound to ribose.

The phosphate tail of ATP is the actual power source which the cell taps. Available energy is contained in the bonds between the phosphates and is released when they are broken, which occurs through the addition of a water molecule a process called hydrolysis.

Usually only the outer phosphate is removed from ATP to yield energy; when this occurs ATP is converted to adenosine diphosphate ADP , the form of the nucleotide having only two phosphates. ATP is able to power cellular processes by transferring a phosphate group to another molecule a process called phosphorylation. This transfer is carried out by special enzymes that couple the release of energy from ATP to cellular activities that require energy.

Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today Although cells continuously break down ATP to obtain energy, ATP also is constantly being synthesized from ADP and phosphate through the processes of cellular respiration. ATP synthase is located in the membrane of cellular structures called mitochondria ; in plant cells, the enzyme also is found in chloroplasts.

In eukaryotic cells the latter two processes occur within mitochondria. Electrons that are passed through the electron transport chain ultimately generate free energy capable of driving the phosphorylation of ADP. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:.

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Adenozíntrifosfát

In its many reactions related to metabolism, the adenine and sugar groups remain unchanged, but the triphosphate is converted to di- and monophosphate, giving respectively the derivatives ADP and AMP. At more extreme pHs, it rapidly hydrolyses to ADP and phosphate. The overall process of oxidizing glucose to carbon dioxide , the combination of pathways 1 and 2, is known as cellular respiration , produces about 30 equivalents of ATP from each molecule of glucose. Glycolysis generates two equivalents of ATP through substrate phosphorylation catalyzed by two enzymes, PGK and pyruvate kinase. The pyruvate generated as an end-product of glycolysis is a substrate for the Krebs Cycle.

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Adenozin trifosfat

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