|Published (Last):||19 January 2004|
|PDF File Size:||3.6 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||11.48 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Main article: Anatolian languages Several other Anatolian languages — particularly Carian , Lycian , Lydian and Milyan also known as Lycian B or Lycian II — are now usually identified as related to Luwian — and as mutually connected more closely than other constituents of the Anatolian branch. Some linguists follow Craig Melchert in referring to this broader group as Luwic,  whereas others refer to the "Luwian group" and, in that sense, "Luwian" may mean several distinct languages.
Likewise, Proto-Luwian may mean the common ancestor of the whole group, or just the ancestor of Luwian Normally, under tree-naming conventions , were the branch to be called Luwic, its ancestor should be known as Proto-Luwic or Common Luwic; in practice, such names are seldom used. Luwic or Luwian in the broad sense of the term , is one of three major sub-branches of Anatolian, alongside Hittite and Palaic.
These archaisms are often regarded as supporting the view that the Proto-Indo-European language PIE had three distinct sets of velar consonants :  plain velars , palatovelars , and labiovelars.
The wheel was invented in the 5th millennium BC and, if kaluti does derive from it, then the Anatolian branch left PIE after its invention so validating the Kurgan hypothesis as applicable to Anatolian. However, kaluti need not imply a wheel and so need not have been derived from a PIE word with that meaning. Geographic and chronological distribution[ edit ] Luwian was among the languages spoken during the 2nd and 1st millennia BC by groups in central and western Anatolia and northern Syria.
Beginning in the 14th century BC, Luwian-speakers came to constitute the majority in the Hittite capital Hattusa. Long after the extinction of the Hittite language , Luwian continued to be spoken in the Neo-Hittite states of Syria , such as Milid and Carchemish , as well as in the central Anatolian kingdom of Tabal that flourished in the 8th century BC. They were allegedly ancestors of the Luwians who inhabited Troy II, and spread widely in the Anatolian peninsula.
According to Mellaart, the proto-Luwian migrations to Anatolia came in several distinct waves over many centuries. Widmer has argued that the Mycenaean term ru-wa-ni-jo, attested in Linear B , refers to the same area. Therefore, none of the arguments in favour of the Luwian linguistic dominance in Western Asia Minor can be regarded as compelling, although the issue continues to be debated. Luwian was split into many dialects, which were written in two different writing systems.
One of these was the Cuneiform Luwian which used the form of Old Babylonian cuneiform that had been adapted for the Hittite language. The other was Hieroglyphic Luwian, which was written in a unique native hieroglyphic script.
The differences between the dialects are minor, but they affect vocabulary, style, and grammar. The different orthographies of the two writing systems may also hide some differences. Cuneiform Luwian[ edit ] Cuneiform Luwian is the corpus of Luwian texts attested in the tablet archives of Hattusa ; it is essentially the same cuneiform writing system used in Hittite. Compared to cuneiform Hittite, logograms signs with a set symbolic value are rare. Instead, most writing is done with the syllabic characters, where a single symbol stands for a vowel, or a consonant-vowel pair either VC or CV.
In this system a long vowel is indicated by writing it twice. Main article: Hieroglyphic Luwian Hieroglyphic Luwian is the corpus of Luwian texts written in a native script, known as Anatolian hieroglyphs. The dialect of Luwian hieroglyphic inscriptions appears to be either Empire Luwian or its descendant, Iron Age Luwian. In , antiquarian travellers in Aleppo found another inscription built into the south wall of the Al-Qaiqan Mosque. The largest known inscription was excavated in in Yalburt, northwest of Konya.
Luwian hieroglyphic texts contain a limited number of lexical borrowings from Hittite , Akkadian , and Northwest Semitic ; the lexical borrowings from Greek are limited to proper nouns, although common nouns borrowed in the opposite direction do exist. Two series of stops can be identified, transliterated as geminate in the cuneiform script. These fortis and lenis stops may have been distinguished by either voicing or gemination.
The contrast was lost initially and finally, suggesting that any voicing only appeared intervocalically. The existence of other consonants, which were not differentiated in writing, is possible.
Parametro 'id' mancante
Inscriptions[ edit ] The earliest hieroglyphs appear on official and royal seals, dating from the early 2nd millennium BC, but only from the 14th century BC is the unequivocal evidence for a full-fledged writing system. Whilst Dutch Hittitologist Willemijn Waal has persuasively argued that Luwian Hieroglyphic was already used for writing on wooden writing boards from the early second millennium BC onwards, the first monumental inscriptions confirmed as Luwian date to the Late Bronze Age , c. After some two centuries of sparse material, the hieroglyphs resume in the Early Iron Age , c. In the early 7th century BC, the Luwian hieroglyphic script, by then aged more than years, falls into oblivion. Main article: Anatolian hieroglyphs A more elaborate monumental style is distinguished from more abstract linear or cursive forms of the script. In general, relief inscriptions prefer monumental forms, and incised ones prefer the linear form, but the styles are in principle interchangeable. Texts of several lines are usually written in boustrophedon style.
CORPUS OF HIEROGLYPHIC LUWIAN INSCRIPTIONS PDF