Personal information is secured with SSL technology. Free Shipping No minimum order. Description Learn how diagnostic ultrasound works, and find out how to properly handle artifacts, scan safely, evaluate instrument performance, and prepare for registry examinations, with the market-leading Sonography Principles and Instruments, 9th Edition. It concisely and comprehensively covers the essential aspects of ultrasound physics and instrumentation like Doppler, artifacts, safety, quality assurance, and the newest technology — all in a dynamic, highly visual format for easy review of key information.
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Therefore, a new approach to teaching and testing sonographic principles is necessary. For over 50 years, one principle has been operating.
Now there are two, providing dramatically different results. Students must be prepared to encounter both when they graduate. The fundamental pulse-echo principle that has been in use in conventional sonography for decades states that a pulse of ultrasound is sent into the anatomy to be imaged and the returning echo stream is displayed as a visible scan line. This is repeated about to times to form one frame of the anatomic image.
In conventional sonography there is a one-to-one correspondence between the emitted pulse and the returning echo stream that appears as a scan line on the display ignoring the detail that, in some cases, multiple scan lines can be presented from one emitted pulse, typically two or four. The best detail resolution occurs in the focal region of the focused, transmitted beam. A laser-thin beam would produce excellent detail resolution everywhere in the image. Unfortunately, the high frequencies necessary to produce such a beam would not allow the penetration necessary for human anatomic imaging.
Conversely, a broad, unfocused beam would produce a useless image with unacceptable detail resolution throughout. Newer, more sophisticated sonographic instruments operate on an entirely different principle, termed virtual-beam sonography.
Conceptually, this processing determines the echo received from each pixel location. The challenge in this is that echoes from multiple locations arrive simultaneously at the transducer elements see Figure 1. This mixed-up result must be sorted out to determine each echo amplitude and Doppler shift if desired with its correct location on the image. Virtual beam-forming provides improved detail resolution i. See References 2 and 3 for further explanation of how virtual beam-forming is accomplished and other examples of its impact on imaging.
Figure 1. Each rain drop produces a circular, out-going wave. Multiple waves arrive at the edges of the photograph simultaneously in a combined form similar to ultrasound waves arriving simultaneously at transducer elements from multiple locations in the anatomy and therefore, in the image.
Figure 2. A, Scan of a phantom showing the entire image is in focus. B, Twin pregnancy showing excellent detail and contrast resolution. Figure 3. B Figure 3. A, Retrospective sample volumes and spectral displays are available from anywhere in the color box after the patient has departed. Note frame rate of Hz!
B, Vector flow shows arrows indicating flow direction and speed at any location in the color box. Educators must begin to incorporate this virtual beam-forming into their curricula.
References Kremkau FW: The new paradigm for understanding, teaching, and testing sonographic principles. J Vasc Ultrasound ;42 4 — Kremkau FW: Your new paradigm for understanding and applying sonographic principles. J Diag Med Sonog ;35 5 About the Author Dr. The content, information, opinions, and viewpoints expressed in this article are those of the author.
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Sonography Principles and Instruments
Reorganized, rewritten material reflects the digital beam-forming, signal-processing, and image-processing functions of modern instruments. Willene Arends marked it as to-read Feb 05, Isaura Manzo marked it as to-read Aug 03, Gaukhar marked it as to-read Mar 19, The man is a master of making somewhat simple concepts as convoluted as possible. Thanks for telling us about the problem. Published October 21st by Saunders first published December There are no discussion topics on this book yet. April added it May 09, Ashley added it Apr 16, Change Khsn rated it liked it Jul 23, Negar rated it it was amazing Nov 06, Xus canada rated it it was amazing Jan 03, Unfortunately, it is a necessity to study this book because Kremkau writes questions for the Ultrasound Physics registries. It covers all essential aspects of ultrasound physics, including Doppler, artifacts, safety, quality assurance, and the newest technol A market leader and a highly respected reference, this text explains how diagnostic ultrasound works and helps readers scan safely, properly handle artifacts, evaluate instrument performance, and prepare for registry and board examinations. Kremkau To ask other readers questions about Diagnostic Ultrasoundplease sign up.
Test bank in Examview with more than questions Image collection with all images from the text in PowerPoint Essential coverage of physics and sonography prepares you for the physics portion of the American Registry for Diagnostic Medical Sonography ARDMS certification exam. Current technology content, including the continuing progression of contrast agents and 3D and the more general aspects of transducers and instruments, helps you better comprehend the text. Straightforward explanations simplify complicated concepts. Learning objectives at the beginning of every chapter give you a measurable outcome to achieve.