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In Memoriam Donald T. Campbell Donald T. Campbell died on Sunday, May 5, , apparently from the complications of surgery. Campbell was one of the truly important thinkers in evolutionary philosophy and social science methodology, and one of the most cited authors in the social sciences.
He was a past president of the American Psychological Association, a distinction comparable to a Nobel prize in psychology. As a recent newsgroup message called him: "A very great experimental psychologist and methodologist perhaps the greatest " Claire Gilbert, blazing[ at ]crl.
I recently had the chance to collaborate with him on a paper entitled " Selection at the Social Level " published in a special issue of "World Futures" , and we had plans to write further joint papers on the evolution of social systems. Alas, that cannot happen anymore. So let me remind you of his more philosophical contributions.
Within that domain his main contributions are the concepts of: 1 " Blind Variation and Selective Retention BVSR ", where he emphasizes the fact that knowledge initially can only be developed by trial-and-error , and 2 " vicarious selectors ", which allowed him to explain how initially blind trials could develop into intelligent search guided by knowledge developed earlier.
He generalized the hierarchical organization of vicarious selectors in his analysis of the phenomenon of " downward causation " another term popularized by him , where a higher level system or whole constrains its parts. He applied this same evolutionary philosophy to the development of social systems, arguing that cultural evolution is necessary to explain the development of human society.
The necessary tension between cultural and biological evolution allowed him to explain the organization of archaic societies and the emergence of religious systems.
He used these insights to plead for the development of an evolutionary ethics, which could guide our actions without recurring to arbitrary metaphysical principles. He also applied these ideas to some problems in present-day society, arguing for alternative types of social organization, without falling into the trap of designing utopias which only work on paper. The depth and thoroughness of his thinking, his attention to detail, and the width of the interdisciplinary terrain he covered from psychology to anthropology, sociology, education, biology, philosophy and systems theory , should be an example to us all.
Although he is no longer here to teach us in person, he leaves behind a wealth of writings which will inspire researchers for the decades to come. The obituary below gives some more details about Campbells work in methodology. The method must follow the question.
Positivismo y postpositivismo
The purpose of this article is to expound —and to contrast to each other—, in ten theses, two legal paradigms: those of positivism or legalism and postpositivism or constitutionalism. Key words: legal paradigm, positivism, legalism, postpositivism, constitutionalism. Lleonard Muntaner, ]. Giappichelli editore, pp. En aclarar si hay que redefinir o no el conjunto de conceptos con los que se arma se construye la imagen del Derecho.
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In Memoriam Donald T. Campbell Donald T. Campbell died on Sunday, May 5, , apparently from the complications of surgery. Campbell was one of the truly important thinkers in evolutionary philosophy and social science methodology, and one of the most cited authors in the social sciences. He was a past president of the American Psychological Association, a distinction comparable to a Nobel prize in psychology.
Significado de Positivismo