JPQL PDF

Greater or equal then: author. Is null: author. In: author. Operators for collection expressions: Is empty: author. Size: size author.

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State-fields that are mapped in serialized form or as lobs may not be portably used in conditional expressions. Note The implementation is not expected to perform such query operations involving such fields in memory rather than in the database.

String literals in queries, like Java String literals, use unicode character encoding. The use of Java escape notation is not supported in query string literals Exact numeric literals support the use of Java integer literal syntax as well as SQL exact numeric literal syntax. Approximate literals support the use Java floating point literal syntax as well as SQL approximate numeric literal syntax.

Enum literals support the use of Java enum literal syntax. The enum class name must be specified. Appropriate suffixes may be used to indicate the specific type of a numeric literal in accordance with the Java Language Specification. Although predefined reserved literals appear in upper case, they are case insensitive.

An identification variable never designates a collection in its entirety. Positional and named parameters may not be mixed in a single query. Note that if an input parameter value is null, comparison operations or arithmetic operations involving the input parameter will return an unknown value.

Input parameters are designated by the question mark? For example:? Input parameters are numbered starting from 1. Note that the same parameter can be used more than once in the query string and that the ordering of the use of parameters within the query string need not conform to the order of the positional parameters. Named parameters are case sensitive. JPQL Conditional Expression Composition Conditional expressions are composed of other conditional expressions, comparison operations, logical operations, path expressions that evaluate to boolean values, boolean literals, and boolean input parameters.

Arithmetic expressions can be used in comparison expressions. Arithmetic expressions are composed of other arithmetic expressions, arithmetic operations, path expressions that evaluate to numeric values, numeric literals, and numeric input parameters. Arithmetic operations use numeric promotion. Standard bracketing for ordering expression evaluation is supported.

Navigation operator. Examples are: p. Examples are: o. Examples are: address. Otherwise, if the value of the collection-valued path expression or single-valued association-field path expression in the collection member expression is NULL or unknown, the value of the collection member expression is unknown.

JPQL All or Any Expressions An ALL conditional expression is a predicate that is true if the comparison operation is true for all values in the result of the subquery or the result of the subquery is empty. An ALL conditional expression is false if the result of the comparison is false for at least one row, and is unknown if neither true nor false. An ANY conditional expression is a predicate that is true if the comparison operation is true for some value in the result of the subquery.

An ANY conditional expression is false if the result of the subquery is empty or if the comparison operation is false for every value in the result of the subquery, and is unknown if neither true nor false.

The result of the subquery must be like that of the other argument to the comparison operator in type. Support for subqueries in the FROM clause will be considered in a later release of the specification. This is illustrated in the following example involving a numeric comparison operation.

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State-fields that are mapped in serialized form or as lobs may not be portably used in conditional expressions. Note The implementation is not expected to perform such query operations involving such fields in memory rather than in the database. String literals in queries, like Java String literals, use unicode character encoding. The use of Java escape notation is not supported in query string literals Exact numeric literals support the use of Java integer literal syntax as well as SQL exact numeric literal syntax. Approximate literals support the use Java floating point literal syntax as well as SQL approximate numeric literal syntax.

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Sample Code Sample Application The code snippets discussed in the article are taken from the Java source files used in the sample application accompanying the article. Looking through the sample archive, you may notice that this is a simple Web application based on the Java Servlet and Java Persistence API technologies. Figure 1 illustrates the sample entities structure. As you can see, it contains a set of entities related to each other with relationships of different types. Figure 1 Relationships among the entities utilized within the sample application For a detailed instruction on how to set up and then launch the sample app, you can refer to the readme. Both are used to access and manipulate database data, in the long run.

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