In Ashkenazi synagogues, the custom varies. Sometimes, a distinction is made between the different forms of Kaddish, or each congregant stands or sits according to his or her own custom. Generally: At the first word of the prayer, at each Amen, at Yitbarakh, at Brikh hu, and for the last verse Oseh shalom. It is not composed in the vernacular Aramaic, however, but rather in a "literary, jargon Aramaic" that was used in the academies, and is identical to the dialect of the Targum. He notes that quotations from the Kaddish in the Talmud and Sifrei are in Hebrew, and that even today some of the words are Hebrew rather than Aramaic.

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The emotional reactions inspired by the Kaddish come from the circumstances in which it is said: it is recited at funerals and by mourners , and sons are required to say Kaddish for eleven months after the death of a parent.

Kaddish is only said with a minyan prayer quorum of ten men , following a psalm or prayer that has been said in the presence of a minyan, since the essence of the Kaddish is public sanctification. The one who says Kaddish always stands. Whether other worshippers sit or stand depends on the congregation. It is customary for all the mourners in the congregation to recite Kaddish in unison. Most religious authorities allow a daughter to say Kaddish, although she is under no religious obligation to do so.

A person may say Kaddish not only for parents, but also for a child, brother, or in-law. An adopted son should say it for adoptive parents who raised him. The Rabbinical Kaddish, Half Kaddish, and Whole Kaddish may be said by a chazzan cantor - prayer leader who is not a mourner and has both parents living. The first mention of mourners saying Kaddish at the end of the service is in a thirteenth century halakhic writing called the Or Zarua.

Although Kaddish contains no reference to death, it has become the prayer for mourners to say. One explanation is that it is an expression of acceptance of Divine judgment and righteousness at a time when a person may easily become bitter and reject God. Kaddish is a way in which children can continue to show respect and concern for their parents even after they have died. This response is central to the Kaddish and should be said out loud. The earliest version of Kaddish dates back to the time of the Second Temple.

This Kaddish is called the "Half Kaddish. He also says it before the Amidah at mincha, maariv, and musaf. Kaddish was not originally said by mourners, but rather by the rabbis when they finished giving sermons on Sabbath afternoons and later, when they finished studying a section of midrash or aggada.

This practice developed in Babylonia where most people understood only Aramaic and sermons were given in Aramaic so Kaddish was said in the vernacular. This is why it is currently said in Aramaic.

It differs from the regular Kaddish because of its inclusion of a prayer for rabbis , scholars and their disciples. By Talmudic times, it became customary to conclude the prayer service with the Kaddish. A sentence was added the line beginning titkabel, "let be accepted" that replaces the passage for the rabbis and disciples and asks God to accept all prayers that were recited.

This Kaddish is called Kaddish Shalem Whole or Full Kaddish and is still said by the chazzan at the end of the service. The full Kaddish includes two sentences, added to the Half Kaddish around the eighth century, that reflect the traditional yearning for peace Yehei shlomo rabba and Oseh shalom.

A last form of the Kaddish, known as "The Great Kaddish" is said at a siyum, when a tractate of the Talmud is completed. The first passage of this Kaddish contains a prayer for the rebuilding of Jerusalem and the Temple and refers to a world-to-come where the dead will be raised to eternal life. This Kaddish is also said at a graveside at a time of burial, although it is not recited if the burial takes place on a day in which Tahanun is omitted from the daily service.


Text of the Mourner’s Kaddish

Kaddidh for the Seas and Oceans. The Kaddish prayer is in Aramaic, not Hebrew, except for the final kaddissh. Blessing for Affixing a Mezuza. And let us say, Amen.


Jewish Prayers: Mourners Kaddish

The words of the Kaddish provide lasting comfort by stressing the greatness and sovereignty of God - even in the most harrowing of life circumstances. Jewish tradition requires that Kaddish be recited during the first eleven months following the death of a loved one and thereafter on each anniversary of the death called the Yahrtzeit. This is called avelut. Kaddish is usually recited by the mourner s while they stand with a minyan, or group of at least 10 adults in a congregation it is also customary for Kaddish to be recited every morning service at synagogue. Note that if Kaddish is recited with a minyan i.

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